Buy Hydrocodone Online. Hydrocodone is an opioid agonist used as an analgesic and antitussive agent
Generic Name: Hydrocodone
Hydrocodone is a synthetic opioid derivative of codeine.14 It is commonly used in combination with acetaminophen to control moderate to severe pain. Historically, hydrocodone has been used as a cough suppressant although this has largely been replaced by dextromethorphan in current cough and cold formulations. Hydrocodone’s more potent metabolite, hydromorphone has also found wide use as an analgesic and is frequently used in cases of severe pain. The FDA first approved Hydrocodone for use as part of the cough suppressant syrup Hycodan in March of 1943. Buy Hydrocodone Online
Hydrocodone inhibits pain signaling in both the spinal cord and brain 12. Its actions in the brain also produce euphoria, respiratory depression, and sedation.
Mechanism of action
Hydrocodone binds to the mu opioid receptor (MOR) with the highest affinity followed by the delta opioid receptors (DOR).13 Hydrocodone’s agonist effect at the MOR is considered to contribute the most to its analgesic effects. Both MOR and DOR are Gi/o coupled and and produces its signal through activation of inward rectifier potassium (GIRK) channels, inhibition of voltage gated calcium channel opening, and decreased adenylyl cyclase activity.14 In the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, activation of pre-synaptic MOR on primary afferents the inhibition of calcium channel opening and increased activity of GIRK channels hyperpolarizes the neuron and prevents release of neurotransmitters. Post-synaptic MOR can also prevent activation of neurons by glutamate through the aforementioned mechanisms.
Hydrocodone can also produce several actions in the brain similarly to other opioids. Activation of MOR in the periaquaductal gray (PAG) inhibits the GABAergic tone on medulo-spinal neurons.14,12 This allows these neurons, which project to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, to suppress pain signalling in secondary afferents by activating inhibitory interneurons. MOR can also inhibit GABAergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, removing the inhibitory tone on dopaminergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens and contributing to the activation of the brain’s reward and addiction pathway. The inhibitory action or MOR likely contributes to respiratory depression, sedation, and suppression of the cough reflex. Buy Hydrocodone Online
Activation of DOR may contribute to analgesia through the above mechanisms but has not been well studied.12